CARL JUNG: ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY
.... from my notes and interpretation
Born in 1875. Grew up in Switzerland.
Background in religion. Father and uncles were ministers.
He studied science and medicine at Basel University. Later decided to specialize in psychiatry. Became the assistant at Burgholzli psychiatric clinic in Zurich under Professor Eugen Blueler, an expert on schizophrenia.
Jung studied word association and schizophrenia.
Met Sigmund Freud in 1907.
Taught at the University of Zurich.
Had private patients. Decided to practice therapy and write.
Wrote extensively, all of which can be found in The Collected Works of Carl Jung. These include individual books on:
-The Development of Personality
-Freud & Psychoanalysis
-The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease
-Symbols of Transformation
-The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche
-Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self
-The Spirit in Man, Art and Literature
-Psychology and Religion
-Psychology and Alchemy
-The Symbolic Life
Jung was well traveled. He traveled to North America, Africa, Tibet, China, Japan, Egypt. His travels helped him confirm his theories about the collective unconscious and dreams. He believed that all men, worldwide, are one.
Jung was considered a mystic.
Jung had conflicts with the church although he was a very spiritual man. He believed that the church seemed to be dead. That man must experience religion and then question. And, that the church did not express the wholeness of God.
Jung was considered an exceptional child, writing very complex essays and treatises at a very young age.
Jung also believed that there was a conflict between the urban and rural mind.
Humankind has lost much by neglecting their inner world. This leads to the conflicts in humans.
Life is a mystery. We don’t know much about life. We understand very little about life.
Jung believed that a pattern of God exists in every man.
Jung asked questions like: Where does man stand in the scheme of things? What is man’s responsibility - especially to live in the present time?
Jung believed that it was the task of man to live the unique individual self he had been born to live, as truly as Christ had lived the end to which he had been born.
Man needs to become more conscious.
The Origins of Personality
Personality has racial or phylogenetic origins. (Refers to the evolution of a genetically related group of organisms). These origins stem from the individual’s inheritance - through memory traces of past experiences of the human race.
The foundations of personality are archaic, primitive, innate, unconscious, and universal.
Archetypes like the persona, the earth mother, the child, the wise old man, and the anima - are universal images or thoughtforms inherited from past generations that predispose people to perceive and respond to the world in particular ways.
Jung raised the question: What constitutes the whole man and the constitution of personality. What is the secret of the whole personality?
Definition of Personality - The Psyche
Personality is the psyche. It embraces all thought, feeling and behavior, conscious and unconscious. The psyche guides us in adapting to our social and physical environment. The psyche is the great objective to the world within. This needs to be explored to find the wholeness.
The psyche represents a unified whole. We are born with this wholeness or at least with the potential to become whole based on our experiences and learning. Thus, the purpose of life is the optimal development of this wholeness.
The psyche is a mystery. One does not know what the psyche is. Just as physicists don’t know matter.
A definition of personality provided by Jung is “the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being, it is an act of high courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal conditions of existence coupled with the greatest possible freedom for self-determination.
Structure of Personality
A combination of systems operating on 3 levels of consciousness:
1. Conscious: The ego operates on the conscious level.
2. Unconscious: The complexes and archetypes operate on the level of the personal unconscious
and the unconscious.
3. All levels: Attitudes and functions.
Over time, the conscious and unconscious should synthesize within the person through the self.
The Conscious Level - The Ego
Consciousness appears early in life, perhaps before birth.
Jung believed that the great danger in becoming conscious is to be one-sided. He strove to see both sides.
The discriminating processes that develop in infants is the first evolvement of the ego.
The ego acts as gatekeeper - it determines what perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories will enter consciousness.
By screening experiences, the ego attempts to maintain a coherence within the personality and give the person a sense of continuity and identity.
The Personal Unconscious
Nothing that has been experienced disappears; such experiences are stored in the personal unconscious (similar to Freud’s preconscious and can be equated with the biopsychological perspective on engrams in the brain).
Suppressed and forgotten experiences are also a part of the personal unconscious.
The personal unconscious must contain groups of associated feelings, thoughts, and memories that have strong emotional content - and that form a complex.
A complex means that a person is so preoccupied with something that it influences almost all of his or her behavior. Mild complexes guide and color all of our lives. Complexes are unconscious - although related elements may become conscious from time to time. Some complexes may lead to outstanding achievements.
The Collective Unconscious
Our evolutionary past provides a blueprint not only of our bodies but of our personalities, a blueprint carried in a so-called collective unconscious.
The collective unconscious seems to transcend time. It is the idea of mind - the experience of life outside of space and time.
The collective unconscious is composed of primordial images - thought forms or memory traces from our ancestral past (including our prehuman and animal ancestry) these images are a record of common experiences that have been repeated over countless generations.
In Jung’s own words, from his collected works, he indicates that the collective unconscious “is an image of the world which has taken aeons to form. In this image certain features, the archetypes or dominant, have crystallized out in the course of time. They are the ruling powers, the gods, images of the dominant laws and principles, and of typical, regularly occurring events in the soul’s cycle of experience.
A deposit of all human experiences. The mind of the universe. This collective unconscious has to be related to the individual mind. Individual conscious mind and the collective unconscious is where the two meet.
The unlimited sum of cumulative psychic conditions.
We inherit a predisposition or potentiality for certain ideas. We are born with the potential to perceive, think and feel in many particular ways. And, this potential is fulfilled by our personal experiences.
The unconscious (personal & collective) can be of great help. According to Jung, it has at its disposal all subliminal contents, all those things which have been forgotten or overlooked as well as the wisdom and experience of uncounted centuries.
Neglected contents of the collective unconscious may find expression in such disorders as phobias, delusions, and other serious psychological disturbances.
In his book on Analytical Psychology, Carl Jung says that the psychology of the individual is reflected in the psychology of the nation. What the nation does is done also by each individual, and so long as the individual continues to do it, the nation will do likewise. Only a change in the attitude of the individual can initiate a change in the psychology of the nation.
The collective unconscious is detached from anything personal. Is common to all men. Its contents can be found everywhere. This is not the case with personal unconsciousness - which contains lost memories, painful ideas that are repressed (i.e., forgotten on purpose). Subliminal perceptions (sense perceptions not strong enough to reach consciousness and contents not ripe enough yet for consciousness).
Some dreams belong to the whole of manking - the collective unconscious. This collective unconscious is evident in normal and abnormal individuals.
Archetypes are universal themes that affect our behavior. It is a universal thought form or predisposition to perceive the world in certain ways.
The archetype represents different potential ways in which we may express our humanness.
Archetypes appear to us in personified or symbolized pictorial form and may penetrate into consciousness by means of myths, dreams, art, ritual, and symptoms.
Examples of archetypes include: birth, rebirth, death, power, magic, unity, the hero, the child, God, the demon, the wise old man, the earth mother, the animal, etc.
The archetypes that are most important in shaping behavior are: the persona, the anima and animus, the shadow and the self --the most important archetype to the development and functioning of the personality. The self is considered to be the ultimate unifying system of the personality that powers the important processes of individuation and transcendence by which the person strives for self-realization.
When an archetype appears in a dream, in a fantasy, or in life, it always brings with it a certain influence or power by virtue of which it either exercises a numinous or a fascinating effect, or impels to action.
The idea of God is an absolutely necessary psychological function of an irrational nature, which has nothing whatever to do with the question of God’s existence. The human intellect can never answer this question, still
less give any proof of God.
The idea of an all powerful divine Being is present everywhere, unconsciously, if not consciously, because it is an archetype.
Archetypes Crucial To Personality
The mask or facade that we exhibit publicly to function adequately in our relationships with others.
The persona is necessary for survival . It helps us control our feelings, thoughts and behavior.
Your persona represents a compromise between your true self and the expectations of society.
The Anima and Animus
The Anima is the feminine side of the male psyche - feelings and emotions. It is one of the greatest of the archetypes. The feminine is so essential to man to be his full creaive self. The anima is crucial to man.
The Animus is the masculine side of the female psyche - logic and rationality. The animus allows women to extend their talents beyond being a mother. It is the creative self in woman.
The anima and animus can help men and women understand and respond to one another, but they can also cause misunderstanding if people project them without regard for others’ real qualities.
Jung believed that it was important for individuals to express these aspects of their personality. Otherwise, these traits would remain unconscious and undeveloped and leave the unconscious weak and immature.
Jung’s comments about the anima and animus led to the concept of an androgynous ideal. Androgyny refers to the presence of both masculine and feminen qualities in an indivudal and the ability to realize both potentialities.
This archetype reflects the animal instincts that human beings have inherited in their evolution from lower forms of life.
The shadow is the dark, simister side of our personalities. It represents the evil, unadapted, unconscious and inferior part of our psyches. Jung believed that the shadow incorporates both Freud’s sexual instinct and Adler’s will to power.
The shadow encompasses those unsocial thoughts, feelings and behaviors that we potentially possess. It is the opposite side of the persona, in that it refers to those desires and emotions that are incompatible with our social standards and ideal personality.
Jung’s choice of the word “shadow” is deliberate and designed to emphasize its necessity. There can be no sun that does not leave a shadow. The shadow cannot be avoided and one is incomplete without it.
Jung agreed with Freud that such base and unsocial impulses may be sublimated and channeled to good ends.
The shadow can also be projected onto others, with important interpersonal and social consequences such as prejudice.
According to Jung, what passed for normality in life was perhaps the force that shattered the personality of mental patients in institutions.
He asked some of the following questions about mental patients:
-What actually takes place in the minds of the mentally ill?
-Why was the psychiatrist not much interested in what the mentally ill had to say?
-Why was the human personality, their individuality ignored?
-How are psychiatrist ever going to establish contact with them?
By analyzing the dreams of mental patients he discovered that mental patients had injured and rejected areas of the human spirit. This led to the conflicts in their psyche.
He believed that every human being or human personality has a story to tell. That derangement comes when individuals are denied the chance to tell their story or the story is rejected.
He believed that therapy must enable the mentally disturbed person to discover their personal story. This is the only way the person could be healed.
Jung also believed that some men were even more sick in their normality.
Man has to get into the depths of the unknown self.
The self represents the striving for unity of all parts of the personality.
It is the organizing principle of the psyche that draws unto itself and harmonizes all the archetypes and their expressions in complexes and consciousness.
The self directs an orderly allotment of psychic energy so that different parts of the personality are expressed appropriately.
Depending upon the occasion and our personal needs, the self allows us to be socially acceptable at work (persona), outrageous at a Halloween party (shadow), etc.
The self, rather than the ego, is the true midpoint of personality. The center of one’s personality is not to be
found in rational ego consciousness. [According to some, Freud had already begun to discover this truth, but he wanted to rescue human beings from irrationality and so he made ego consciousness central.]
For Jung, the true self lay on the boundary between conscious and unconscious, reason and unreason.
The development of the self is life’s goal, but the self archetype cannot begin to emerge until the other personality systems have been fully developed. Thus, it usually does not become evident until one has reached middle age.
Self-realization should be the goal of every individual. However, it is rarely completely achieved.
Jung believed that man has to get into the depths of the unknown self. Questions to be asked: Where does man stand in the scheme of things? What is his responsibility to live in the present time?
Each human being has a specific nature and a calling uniquely his own. Unless he fulfills this calling in a non-one-sided way. Unless he fulfills this calling in such a way that the specialized superior functions could be joined by the repressed unconscious forces at some point in life, man would become sick.
Becoming a self-actualized person involves individuation and transcendence. In individuation, the systems of the individual psyche achieve their fullest degree of differentiation, expression and development. Transcendence refers to the integration of the diverse systems of the self toward the goal of wholeness and identify with all of humanity.
Jung believes that the aspect of individuation is a lower level of total personality development. He believes that following individuation, we need to experience transcendence. In the process of transcendence, a deeper self or essence emerges that unites a person with all of humanity and the universe at large.
The first half of life, then, is concerned with individuation, the cultivation of consciousness and gender-specific behavior. The second half of life presents us with a different task, transcendence, which permits us to come into closer contact with and express our collective unconscious and our oneness with humanity as a whole.
Jung suggests that the self is in the process of self-actualization.
“Psychic Birth” of an individual does not really occur until adolescence, when the psyche starts to show a definite form and content. Personality development continues throughout life and the middle years (35-40) mark the beginning of major changes.
Each one of us has the potential to develop into a self, that is to actualize, fulfill and enhance our maximum human potentialities. (Abraham Maslow began to outline to explicit characteristics).
Jung’s viewpoint is considered teleological or purposeful. It explains the present in terms of the future with reference to a goal that guides and directs our destiny. [In contrast, Freud’s view was causal --lookingt at personality from an antecedent condition of the past. Jung believed that causality and teleology were important to a full understanding of personality.]
While personality development is largely progressive (or forward moving) regression may occur under frustrating conditions. Jung says this regression may be necessary and in the end may facilitate the forward movement of progression. That by exploring the unconscious, both personal and collective, the ego may learn from past experiences and resolve the problem that led to the regression.
Self-actualization involves individuation and transcendence. In individuation, the systems of the individual
psyche achieve their fullest degree of differentiation, expression and development.
Transcendence refers to integration of the diverse systems of the self toward the goal of wholeness and identity with all of humanity.
Jung suggests that the aspect of individuation is a lower level of total personality development. He believes
that following individuation, we need to experience transcendence. In the process of transcendence, a deeper self or essence emerges that unites a person with all oif humanity and the universe at large.
The first half of life, then, is concerned with individuation, the cultivation of consciousness and gender-specific behavior. The second half of life presents us with a different task, transcendence, which permits us to come into closer contact with and express our collective unconscious and our oneness with humanity as a whole.
The true person (or self) is a combination of all of the conscious and unconscious factors. Neurosis results from a one-sided personality development.
For Jung - the coincidence of opposites is the ultimate goal of personality development.
Although both Freud and Jung emphasize the dynamic opposition of portions of the personality, they differ in the implications of this conflict. For Freud, the person is inescapably in conflict; for Jung, the person ultimately seeks harmony.
(Attitudes: Introversion and Extroversion) (Functions: Thinking, Feeling, Sensation and Intuition)
Two Major Attitudes: The Personality of Type
1. Introversion - oriented toward subjective experience - person tends to focus on the inner, private world where reality is represented as it is perceived by the person. Is introspective and preoccupied with own internal affairs. Example, Alfred Adler.
2. Extroversion - Oriented toward objective experience - person tends to spend more time perceiving the external world of things and other people than thinking about his perceptions. Appear active and outgoing and take an ingerest in the external world. Example, Sigmund Freud.
These 2 attitudes oppose each other and one tends to rule the personality while the other is repressed and unconscious. The unconscious of the introvert is extraverted; the conscious of the extravert is introverted.
There are 4 psychological functions. One of these functions always is primary with another supporting the main one.
1. Thinking - an intellectual function, seeks to connect ideas with each other so as to understand
the nature of the world and to solve problems.
2. Feeling - an evaluative function, accepts or rejects ideas and objects on the basis of whether
they arouse positive or negative feelings.
3. Sensing - the operation of the sense organs.
4. Intuiting - a perception that is usually unconscious.
Tests constructed as a result of definitions of introversion and extro version include: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; the Personality Inventory by Eysenck.
Personality contains polar or conflicting tendencies. The personality strives constantly for the union or synthesis of opposites. This enables the formation of a balanced, integrative personality.
A symbol is a visible sign of something invisible: it is something that stands for or suggests something else. We are symbols of the people we represent. Man makes symbols.
Sy mbols are the outward expressions of archetypes.
These symbols appear in dreams, fantasies, visions, myths, art, etc.
Symbols may represent an impulse that cannot be satisfied or express stored-up wisdom.
A person’s destiny, the highest evolution of his or her psyche is marked out by symbols.
The round table is a symbol of wholeness.
In his last book, Man and His Symbols, Jung indicates that “the symbol-producing function of our dreams is thus an attempt to bring the original mind of man into “advanced” or differentiated consciousness, where it has never been subjected to critical self-reflection. For in ages long past, that original mind was the whole of man’s personality. As he developed consciousness, so his conscious mind lost contact with some of that primitive psychic energy. And the conscious mind has never known that original mind.
Dreams and their symbols are not stupid and meaningless. Dreams provide the most interesting information for those who take the trouble to understand their symbols. Jung worked through 67,000 dreams with his own patients.
Jung believes that very little attention is paid to the essence of man, which is his psyche. And that the really complex and unfamiliar part of the mind from which symbols are produced, is still virtually unexplored. He says “it seems almost incredible that though we receive signals from it every night, deciphering these comminications seems too tedious for any but a very few people to be bothered with it. Man’s greatest instrument, his psyche, is little thought of, and it is often directly mistrusted and despised. “It’s only psychological” too often means: It is nothing “ (Man and His Symbols, p.93).
The life energy of the personality. It is manifested consciously as many sorts of striving, desiring, and willing; and, by such processes as perceiving, thinking and attending.
The purpose of this energy is to seek a balance - a steady state of equilibrium. If the personality system was a totally open system and continually took in new energy, it would be chaotic. If it were totally closed and took in no new energy, it would soon stagnate.
Psychic energy originates in the experiences a person has. There is a reciprocal action between physical and psychic energy.
Our psychic energy depends on what we value.
Psychic energy operates according to the principles of equivalence and entrophy: it seeks balance and moves a person toward in a process of self-actualization.
Jung was not certain that death was an end. He said that the psyche is not dependent on the limitations of death.
He believed there was a psychical existence beyond time and space. Death should be our goal.
Toward the end of his life Jung believed that the psyche should remain the major focal point of study:
“We need more understanding of human nature. The only real danger that exists is
man himself. He is the great danger and we are pitifully unaware of it. We know nothing
of man. Far too little. His psyche should be studied. Because we are the origin of all
Freud and Jung: Contrasts
(From the Collected Works of C,G. Jung, Volume 4. Freud and Psychoanalysis. New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press, 1961, 333-340.)
Jung met Freud in 1907. They lectured together. Their relationship came to an end in 1914 at Freud’s request.
“What Freud has to say about sexuality, infantile pleasure, and their conflict with the “reality principle,” as well as what he says about incest and the like, can be taken as the truest expression of his personal psychology...”
“By his own subjective confession, Freud has assisted at the birth of a great truth about man. He has devoted his life and strength to the construction of a psychology which is a formulation of his own being.”
“I prefer to look at man in the light of what in him is healthy and sound, and to free th sick man from just that kind of psychology which colours every page Freud has written. I can not see how Freud can ever get beyond his own psychology and relieve the patient of a suffering from which the doctor himself still suffers. It is the psychology of neurotic states of mind, definitely one-sided, and its validity is really confined to those states.”
“Within these limits, it is true and valid even when it is in error, for error also belongs to the picture and carries the truth of a confession. But it is not a psychology of the healthy mind - and this is a symptom of its morbidity.”
“It is based on an uncriticized, even an unconscious view of the world which is apt to narrow the horizon of experience and limit one’s vision.”
“It was a great mistake on Freud’s part to turn his back on philosophy. Not once does he criticize his assumptions or even his personal psychic premises.” (Jung, 1961, p.335.)
Another difference is that “I try to free myself from all unconscious and therefore uncriticized assumptions about the world in general. I am therefore disposed to recognize all manner of Gods provided only that they are active in the human psyche. I do not doubt that the natural instincts or drives are forces of propulsion in psychic life, whether we call them sexuality or the will to power; but neither do I doubt that these instincts come into collision with the spirit.
I see in all that happens a play of opposites and derive from this conception my idea of psychic energy. I
believe that psychic energy involves the play of opposites in much the same way as physical energy
involves a difference of potential.
Freud began by taking sexuality as the only psychic driving force and only after my break with him did he take other factors into account.
“...I do not mean to deny the importance of sexuality in psychic life... What I seek is to
set bounds to the rampant terminology of sex which vitiates all discussion of the human
psyche and put sexuality in its proper place” (p.338).
Jung says that “sexuality is only one of the biological instincts, only one of the psychophysiological functions, though one that is without doubt very far-reaching and important.” But he asks, what happens when we can no longer satisfy our hunger? There is, quite obviously, a marked disturbance today in the psychic sphere of sex, just as, when a tooth really hurts, the whole psyche seems to consist of nothing but toothache. Jung says the kind of sexuality described by Freud is that unmistakable sexual obsession which shows itself whenever a patient has reached the point where he needs to be forced or tempted out of a wrong attitude or situation. It is an overemphasized sexuality piled up behind a dam, and it shrinks at once to normal proportions as soon as the way to development is opened.
Jung says that this level of sexuality is pent-up energy. Freudian psychology sets up this scenario.
It points no way out of the cycle of biological events.
As a result, and in despair, man would have to cry out the words of St.Paul: “Wretched man that I am, who will deliver me from the body of this death?”
And, the spiritual man in us comes forward, shaking his head, and says in Fausts’ words: “Thou art conscious only of the single urge,” namely of the fleshly bond leading back to father and mother or
forward to the children that have sprung from our flesh - “incest” with the past and “incest” with the future,
the original sin of perpetuation of the “family romance.”
Jung believed that there is nothing that can free man from this bond except the opposite urge of life - the spirit. It is “children of God,” who know this freedom - not children of the flesh.” “Man will not learn that God is his father.”
Jung says that Freud would never learn this and all those who shared his outlook also forbid themselves to learn this.
Jung believes that man has always and everywhere spontaneously developed a religious function and that the human psyche from time immemorial has been permeated with religious feelings and ideas. Jung says Freud’s concept of the superego is an attempt to disguise this concept in the dress of psychological theory.
The human psyche is a whole which embraces consciousness. It is the mother of consciousness. Scientific thought, being only one of the psyche’s functions can never exhaust its potentialities.
Jung believes that the psychotherapist must not allow his vision to be coloured by pathology. He must never
forget that the ailing mind is a human mind and that, for all its ailments, it unconsciously shares the
whole psychic life of man.
He must even be willing to admit that the ego is sick for the very reason that it is cut off from the whole,
and has lost its connection not only with manking but with the spirit.
The ego is indeed the “place of fears,” as Freud says, but only as long as it is not connected to its core or
source which Jung calls its “father” and “mother.”
Jung concludes that the contrast between Freud and himself goes back to the fundamental differences in
their basic assumptions.
Jung wanted to develop a psychology that dealth with human aspirations and spiritual needs. In this respect, he was an important forerunner of the humanist movement. He also believed that the way to self-realization was through the rediscovery of the spiritual self.
Jung called the total personality the psyche. It is a nonphysical space that has its own special reality. Through the psyche, energy flows continuously in various directions from consciousness to unconsciousness and back and from inner to outer reality and back.
He considered the terms psychic energy and libido to be interchangeable. He considered libido to signify a general life-process energy, of which sexual urges are only one aspect.
Many of Jung’s discoveries, like Freud’s took place in the clinical setting, based on empirical observations during therapy and research.
Jung also made observations of other cultures and studies of comparative religion and mythology, symbolism, alchemy, and the occult. Jung considered these sources secondary but legitimate ones to psycholgists seeking to uncover the mysteries of the human psyche. However, Jung’s ionterest in the occult led many critics to dismiss him as a mystic.
He believed that a comparative method of study, often used in history and anthropology, was a valuable approach in science as well.
Jung also did not believe that psychologists should be bound to an experimental scientific approach.
He did believe, however, that conclusions should be based on empirical data.
Jung has influenced developments in psychology and other disciplines.
The concept of self-actualization, which is considered teleological, reappears in the theories of Carl
Rogers, Gordon Allport, and Abraham Maslow.
Because his concepts were based on empirical data (broadly) one could conclude that he operated as a scientist. However, his theory falls short of rigorous standards of compatibility, predictive power and simplicity.
Jung’s work also can be considered philosophical or religious, because he explicityly raised philosophical questions and suggested philosophical answers. Theologians have found his work very fruitful. His concept of God’s revealing himself through the collective unconscious is particularly attractive to theologians.
As an art, Jungian therapy emphasizes a scholarly goal. There is now training in Jungian analysis and new books.
Jung’s emphasis on inborn qualities, the duality of human nature, symbolism, androgyny, and the importance of inner experiences - are seen as important, if not indispensable for understanding personality.
Jung’s interest in the developmental process with his attention to the 2nd half of the human life span has proven valuable to social scientists who are concerned about the needs and growth of our older population.
BBC Film Series, The Story of Carl Gustav Jung as told by Laurens Van Der Post: In Search of Soul; 67.000 Dreams; and, Mystery That Heals.
Engler, Barbara. (2003). Personality Theories. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Jung, Carl G. (1961). Memories, dreams, reflections. New York: Random House.
_____. (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Doubleday.
_____. (1967) The Collected Works of C.G. Jung. (H.Read, M. Fordham, & G. Adler, Eds.) Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.
All Rights Reserverd. Rosalyn M. King, Ed.D., 2003, 2011
The Red Book
(From Exhibit at the Library of Congress)
Jung's Art and Mandalas
Videos on the Red Book
The site of Dr. C. George Boeree, Department of Psychology at Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania. He features many personality theorists.
The skeptics dictionary with related readings and links on Jung.
Site of the New England Society of Jungian Analysts.
The Institute was founded in 1948 as a foundation for training and researching analytical psychology and psychotherapy. Professionals come from all over the world to attend classes and seminars.
Introduction to Carl Jung, with resources, articles, books and more.
A paper outlining Jung's analysis of Picasso through an assessment of his art.
21 Books in this online collection.
A paper by Douglas A. Davis at Haverford College.
Provides many links about Carl Jung, his work, and related topics applying Jungian psychology.
The Jung Society of Washington is a nonprofit, 501(c)(3) tax-exempt educational membership society open to all who are interested in learning more about the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung.
Another popular personality test based on the work of Carl Jung about introverted and extroverted personalities.
A collection of Jungian-related material.
The mission of the Philemon Foundation is to make the complete body of Jung’s work available in editions that meet the highest standards of scholarship and do justice to the true measure of this major creative thinker.
The Philemon Foundation is preparing for publication the Complete Works of C. G. Jung.
In distinction to the widely known Collected Works, it is intended that the Complete Works will comprise manuscripts, seminars, and correspondence hitherto unpublished numbering in the tens of thousands of pages. The historical, clinical, and cultural importance of this material equals and, in some instances, surpasses the importance of that which has been already published. The Philemon Foundation intends to make the completed body of C. G. Jung’s work available as volumes in the Philemon Series. As such, the Philemon Foundation is the successor to the Bollingen Foundation that originally made possible the publication of Jung’s Collected Works, the cornerstone of their Bollingen Series.
Philemon Foundation is in a unique position to have the support and contractual collaboration of the Stiftung der Werke von C. G. Jung. You can download excerpts from the Red Book just recently published, along with a newsletter series on Jung History, a semi-annual publication of the Philemon Foundation.
OTHER VIDEO CLIPS
Jung-The World Within
All Rights Reserverd. Rosalyn M. King, Ed.D., 2003, 2011, 2015