Developmental Theories

Erik Erikson

Biography of Erik H. Erikson:  Identity's Architect
Erik Erikson tried to create a vision of psychological energy and health.

Erik Erikson-Biography
An overview of Erikson's theory on psychosocial and personality development.

Erik Erikson-Theory of Psychosocial Development
An overview of Erikson's theory on psychosocial  and personality development.

Sigmund Freud

Freud Museum - Vienna
An overview of the contributions of Sigmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud - Freud Museum, London
An overview of the life and work of Sigmund Freud.

Lawrence Kohlberg

Lawrence Kohlberg- Theory of Moral Development
A comprehensive site on the life, theory and works of Lawrence Kohlberg.

Thomas Lickona

Thomas Lickona:  Character Development and the Character Education Partnership
The Character Education Partnership was founded by developmental psychologist, Thomas Lickona. The national organization is committed to developing civic virtue and moral character in our youth for a more compassionate and responsible society.

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget Archives
Is a depository of information on Jean Piaget, his biography, theories and writings.

Short Biography of Jean Piaget
About the life and contributions of Piaget.

Lev Vygotsky

Lev Vygotsky Archive
A comprehensive website on the life and works of Lev Vygotsky.

The Vygotsky Project
Highlights Vygotsky's ideas and interests.  Includes many papers and discussion on: The Man and his Ideas; Vygotsky Compared to Others; Vygotsky in Practice; Vygotskian Concepts; Related Authors; and, Further Study on Vygotsky.

Vygotsky Resources
An extensive site on Vygotsky, including biographical information, photo archive, theories, information for teachers, practices and more.

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

New Fertility Techniques Transfers Genes
An overview of research and clinical trials on fertility procedures.

The National Human Genome Research Institute
Includes a report on the mission and goals of the project.  Contains reports from some of the following: the Center for In herited Disease Research; ethical, legal and social implications of the research; genomic and genetic resources; workshops and conferences; and, a glossary of genetic terms.  This is an informative site.  You can actually listen to NIH experts explain each term in the glossary.  The glossary includes an explanation of such terms as: gene therapy, Huntington's disease, diabetes, cloning, Parkinson's disease and much more.

Prenatal Development

A fetal health resource center.  Provides information on prenatal development, primarily focusing on amniocentesis.  Includes the world's first embryo images and 3D fetal portraits, as well as a discussion on chromosomes.

Chanting in Pregnancy and Childbirth
Frederick Leboyer, founder of the gentle birth method and the book Birth Without Violence, proposes a revolutionary way that mothers can begin doing Indian chanting to transform their pregnancy and childbirth experiences into a more spiritual experience.  Chanting also produces a healthier, happier and calmer baby.

Childbirth Position Sees Increased Blood Flow With More Pelvic Tilt: Have We Been Wrong All Along?
A new study suggests the typical angle at which most obstetricians position their patients may be sub-optimal for promoting healthy blood flow during childbirth. and Prenatal Development is a comprehensive Web site database featuring extensive information about thousands of different medications and drugs currently on the market or previously available worldwide. includes up-to-date information about prescription and over-the-counter medications and includes details about associated side effects to aid in the protection of patients and consumers.

Embryo Freezing: Cryopreservation
Site of the Advanced Fertility Center of Chicago. Discusses techniques for frozen embryos and implantation.

Environmental Causes of Infertility and Miscarriage
A University of South Florida site that discusses the causes of infertility in men and women.  The site includes a presentation of research findings of the impact of environmental impacts to the developing fetus.  Among the many substances cited are: coffee, food additives, MSG, plastics, nutrasweet, alcohol, food additives, cosmetic chemicals, job occupations, cigarettes, pesticides, vehicle exhaust, geographic locations, and more.

Environmental Impacts on Reproductive Health
This site explains how exposures to certain toxicants might result in adverse effects on reproductive health. It also includes a pdf that can be downloaded with the information.

Fetal Alchohol Syndrome
Information on behaviors of those affected by Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects, including national statistics and contacts.

Fetal Psychology
An overview of fetal development and abilities, including alertness, movement, taste, hearing, vision, learning, personality, etc.

Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy Affects Babies' Intelligence
A research report on the effects of mother's thyroid imbalance on fetal development.

In Vitro Fertilization
Presents discussion of in vitro fertilization techniques with pictures of oocytes, sperm and embryos.  You can also take a tour of the IVF lab and see an embryologist at work.

Mesothelioma which is commonly referred to as asbestos cancer, is an aggressive cancer caused primarily by the inhalation of dangerous asbestos fibers. The disease attacks the mesothelium, a protective, two-layered membrane that covers the internal organs of the body including the lungs, heart and abdominal organs. Between these layers, the cells produce fluid, which allows easy movement of the heart and lungs within the chest cavity. The layer that covers the lungs is called the pericardium, which is where pericardial mesothelioma is known to occur. The peritoneum lines the abdominal cavity. Mesothelium also lines the male and female reproductive organs.

Pregnancy and Prenatal Development
A site about prenatal development and infancy.  Includes discussions on getting pregnant, prenatal tests, fetal development, birth and labor, infertility, among other topics.

Prenatal Diagnosis: Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling
The site of ultrasound practitioners, Dr. Peter Warren and Glenn McNally at the Royal Hospital for Women in Randwick, UK.

Prenatal Nutrition
Includes a discussion about what expecting mothers should be doing?  Research is included from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the US Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration, the March of Dimes, the University of Maryland, and Tufts University.  Discusses required diet and vitamin supplements needed to aid in fetal development.

The Parent's Page
An extensive listing of traditional and nontraditional birthing, parenting and pregnancy.

The Prenatal Diagnostic Center
A site about prenatal diagnosis.  Includes a discussion of prenatal diagnostic procedures of:  chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, ultrasound, and a report on the risks of pregnant women drinking tap water.

A site developed by the Global Maternal Child Health Association and Waterbirth International Research.  Includes an overview of the gentle birth method of water birth.  Includes information and an explanation on water birth and the types, birth stories, a list of references and related links.

Infancy and Toddlerhood

Baby's Health, Development and Behavior
Includes a section on pregnancy and baby care and development and behavior for ages 1 to 3.  There is a discussion on health, immunizations, fathering, taming your toddlers, temper tantrums, and more.

Breastfeeding vs. Bottlefeeding
The pros and cons of brestfeeding.  Includes internet resources and books on breastfeeding.

Infant Brain Development-How to Build Baby's IQ
Discusses building baby's intelligence - why infant stimulation is important during the first 3 years of life.  Includes resources and articles on:  how babies learn to listen, critical windows of opportunity, child's play and brain development, fertile minds, the importance of early brain development and more.

LeLeche League International and Breastfeeding
An organization dedicated to providing education, information, support and encouragement to women who want to breastfeed.

Neonatal Synaesthesia
Recent findings are reviewed on the developmental theory of synaesthesia.  The theory states that all human neonates have synaesthesia (one sense triggering another) by about 4 months of age.  The senses become modularized and babies loose this ability.

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families
The national organization is dedicated solely to infants, toddlers, and their families.  Headed by recognized experts in the field, it provides technical assistance to communities, states and the federal government. The site includes a section for parents and professionals among other resources.

Early and Middle Childhood

National Organizations on Children

American Academy of Pediatrics
This organization provides data for optimal physical, mental, and social health for all children. The site provides links to publications, professional educational sources and current research.

Children's Defense Fund
An advocacy organization for children.

National Association for The Education of Young Children
This is the nation's largest organization of early childhood professionals devoted to improving the quality of early childhood education programs for children from birth to age 8. Includes resources for parents and a list of accredited centers. Also includes a wealth of information on such topics as SIDS, self-esteem, building positive relationships, automobile safety learning through olay, guidelines for developmentally appropriate practices.

The National Academy For Child Development
NACD is an international organization of parents and professionals dedicated to helping children and adults reach their full potential. Includes research and articles on such topics as ADD, ADHD, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Down Syndrome, cerebral palsy, minimal brain dysfunction, accelerated programs for the gifted. Site also includes a new study on the role of short-term memory on academic achievement. Also includes articles published from the Journal of the National Academy for Child Development on such topics as food sensitivity, sensory deprivation, child management, ADD and many more.

UNICEF Convention on the Rights of the Child
An outline of the UN human rights treaty.  Includes description on international standards for children's civil, political, economic, cultural and social rights.

United Nations Children's Fund
Provides international reports on children's news, recent UNICEF publications, statistics on women and children worldwide, as well as other global children's rights information.

Early Childhood

Aggression and Cooperation:  Helping Young Children Develop Constructive Strategies
This ERIC Digest report is on helping children deal effectively with aggression.  Developing prosocial attitudes and behaviors is its goal.

Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
CNRC is dedicated to defining the nutrient needs of healthy children, from conception through adolescence, and of pregnant and nursing mothers.

Early Childhood Care and Development
Child development theory, programming and parenting data, and research can be found on this site of the Consultative Group.  it is dedicated to the improvement of conditions of young children at risk.

Early Childhood-UNICEF's The State of The World's Children
Details the daily lives of parents and other caregivers who are striving - in the face of war, poverty, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic - to protect the rights and meet the needs of young children.

How Does Your Child Hear and Talk
Information on hearing, understanding, and talking by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.  Includes developmental milestones from birth to 5 years.

Sesame Workshop
The non-profit organization behind Sesame Street and more.  Includes educational resources for parents, educators and more.

The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development
Gathers and disseminates information on early childhood development.

The Early Childhood Initiative at the University of Chicago
A site at the University of Chicago dedicated to advancing research on early childhood development.The site includes the research of Susan Goldin-Meadow on children and gesturing. Major research areas of the initiative include: academic achievement, brain development, cognition, language, maternal factors in development, neurological disorders and social programs.

Toys:  Tools for Learning
A site developed by the National Association for the Education of Young Children.  Through toys, children learn about their world, themselves and others.  This site helps you to understand the importance of play and how to choose the correct structure and toys for play.

Middle Childhood

Research Network On Successful Pathways Through Middle Childhood
Funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Looks at early childhood transitions. Includes a network of experts from diverse fields. Major areas of research includes: continuity and transitions, context, psychological processes, diversity and intervention. Includes a section on "For Kids and Families," with links to fun sites for children.  ** Link No longer Available. You can purchase the report on at:

Language Development

Language Development - Developmental Milestone Chart
A joint project of the Corporation for National Service, the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Shows a developmental milestone chart on language development from infancy through childhood. Also takes you to another Chart outlining activities to help children learn language.

Cognitive Development

Videos on Multiple Intelligence

Multiple Intelligences Institute
World Symposium Featuring Dr. Howard Gardner

Children's Literature

Vandergrift's Children's Literature Page
A wonderful site about children & their literature by Kay Vandergrift, Rutger's University.

Children and Allergies

Asthmatic Children
Information, definitions and tips for parents of asthmatic children.

Children and Allergies
An overview of allergies that children may acquire. Provides pointers on potential problem spots for children with allergies and tips to help children and their parents effectively manage allergies.

Dust Allergy
Discusses the causes of allergic reactions to dust.

Food Allergies
Information of foods that cause allergies and how to deal with children and food allergies.

I Am Your Child
A national public awareness and engagement campaign to make early childhood development a top priority for our nation. Includes resources and research on parenting, stages of development, child care, brain facts and more.

Causes, triggers, treatment and management.

Parenting in Childhood

Every Kid Needs a Champion (Video)
Ted Talk Video on the needs of children.

Single Parenting
This resource focuses on issues concerning single parents and their children.  

The National Parent Information Network (NPIN)
This is an ERIC clearinghouse on elementary and early childhood education. The site contains resources related to many controversial issues faced by parents raising children in contemporary society.

Research Issues and Findings on Childhood

Children Now
Children Now focuses on improving conditions for children who are poor or at risk.  Articles include information on education, the influence of media, health, and security.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Site provides overview of institute's mission, research publications, etc. Conducts and supports laboratory, clinical and epidemiological research on the reproductive, neurobiologic, developmental and behavioral processes that determine and maintain the health of children, adults, families and populations. Includes the Cochrane Neonatal Colloborative Review Group with a host of research articles on neonatal development. See new releases of research findings under "News & Events."

Raising and Educating Gifted Children

Harvard Project Zero
Investigates the development of learning processes in children and adults. Mission is to understand and enhance learning, thinking and creativity in the arts and other disciplines for individuals and institutions.

Frequently Asked Questions on Gifted Education
Provides extensive information on 28 areas of giftedness, including identifying gifted children, gifted children with disabilities, models of best practices, longitudinal studies, and much more.

Joy & Loss: The Emotional Lives of Gifted Children
An excellent site. Discusses the psychosocial development of gifted children as well as the stress they experience as a result of being gifted.

Gifted Development Center
The Center of Linda Kreeger Silverman, Ph.D. on gifted children.

Motivating the Gifted Student
Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck on the subject of motivation.

Child Abuse

National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse
This site provides a wealth of resources and information on child abuse prevention efforts. The site also provides statistics and parenting tips.

Disorders in Childhood

Prader-Willi Syndrome: 'Food is a Death Sentence to these Kids'
A rare chromosomal abnormality called Prader-­Willi syndrome, which causes low muscle tone and impairs signaling between the brain and the stomach.

National Attention Deficit Disorder Association
Site includes many resources and topics such as definitions and symptoms, treatment, drug issues, family issues, support groups and other research.

Discusses the positive advantages of dyslexia. Includes information on dyslexia and the Davis training methods for overcoming learning problems, worldwide centers for correction, forums for networking, articles and reports on different learning styles, educational approaches, and guides for teachers and parents.

Autism Society of America
The mission of the Autism Society of America is to promote lifelong access and opportunities for persons who are autistic through advocacy, public awareness, education and research.


Children Learn What They Live-Les Crane

Every Kid Needs a Champion
Rita Pierson, a teacher for 40 years, once heard a colleague say, "They don't pay me to like the kids." Her response: "Kids don't learn from people they don’t like.’” A rousing call to educators to believe in their students and actually connect with them on a real, human, personal level.

Pesticides Tied to ADHD in Children (Video)
July 2010 -- Marc Weisskopf, assistant professor of environmental and occupational epidemiology, discusses a study that finds children exposed to higher levels of pesticides known as organophosphates could have a higher risk of being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2:02)

Videos on Multiple Intelligence

Multiple Intelligences Institute
World Symposium Featuring Dr. Howard Gardner


Adolescent Health-Online
American Medical Association's site with information and links, science updates and guidelines for adolescent development and health.

Adolescence: Change and Continuity
This site provides an introduction to some of the developmental changes during the period of early and late adolescence.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Many topics and facts for families, public health, and clinical practice. Reports on emotional, behavioral and cognitive development of infants, children and adolescents.  

Ask NOAH About: Mental Health for Children and Adolescents
Contains information on child and adolescent family problems, mental conditions and disorders, suicide prevention, guidelines for parents, how to deal with traumas and disasters.

CYFERNET: Children, Youth & Families Education & Research Network
A practical research-based information site from the nation's leading universities.  Contains information on early childhood, school-age children, teens, parents and families, and community.

Mental Health Risk Factors-A Directory of Resources for Adolescents
A compendium of sites on mental health issues for parents,  the lay public,educators and other professionals dealing with children and adolescents.  Includes topics on mental, physical and sexual abuse, adolescent development, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, ADHD, conduct disorders, grieving, stress, suicide, and other support issues.


Research Network on Successful Mid-life Development
The site of the John D. and Catherine T. Mac Arthur Foundation, Research Network on Successful Mid life Development. The research project is based at Harvard University and its purpose is to identify the major biomedical, psychological and social factors impacting middle adulthood, spanning 40 to 60+ years of age.

Mature Adulthood and Aging

American Psychological Association, Division 20, Adult Development and Aging
Dedicated to studying the psychology of adult development and aging this division provides links to research guides, laboratories, instructional resources and other related areas.

American Society on Aging
A membership association.  The site has news on aging and featured forums on aging related topics.

Profile of Older Americans
Provides demographic data on mature adults, including education, income, marital status, employment and more.

National Centenarian Awareness Project
A site developed by Lynn Peters Adler, J.D. - a lawyer - who has devoted her career to the concerns of centenarians, longevity, and positive aging.  The site includes "Centenarians This Millennium," where she interviews many Centenarians.  These are very strong, healthy and active people, ranging in age from 100 years and over.  The site also has much information on centenarians, book excerpts, stories, tributes, etc.  Includes a centenarian registry where you can include the names of people you know 99 years of age or older.  A great site!

National Institute on Aging (NIA)
A site at the National Institutes of Health.  Includes mission statement and extra mural programs on the biology of aging, the behavioral and social research program, neuroscience and neuropsychology of aging, geriatrics program and related sites.

US Administration on Aging - National Aging Information Center
 Contains a wide variety of information on program and policy related materials, demographics and other statistical data related to the health, economic and social status of older Americans.  Includes an extensive set of links to other related sites on the Internet.

Death, Dying and Grieving

Death in America:  Project on Death, Dying, and Bereavement
The goal of this project is to help people understand and transform the dying experience in America.  Includes extensive links on the subject.

Euthanasia: Ethics Updates
Contains articles on biomedical ethics and issues of euthanasia.  Includes recent articles, ancient concepts, legal and legislative information, selected philosophical literature, links and a search engine.

The Kervorkian File
A site devoted to Dr. Jack Kervorkian, inventor of the "suicide machine." Dr. Kervorkian is now serving a prison sentence for assisting with the deaths of terminally ill patients wishing to die.  The site includes a mailing address for those who wish to correspond with Dr. Kervorkian.

The Hemlock Society
Information on planning for a peaceful death.  This is the oldest and largest right to die organization in the US  The Hemlock Society believes that people who wish to retain their dignity and choice at the end of life should have the option of a peaceful, gentle, certain, and swift death in the company of their loved ones.